Share a Prayer: Private Prayer in a Public Context

We all know that prayer is both a communal and an individual experience. Our tradition is replete with volumes of prayers that have been composed and codified throughout our history. Psalms and other Biblical sources are thousands of years old, yet they still have the power to sustain our liturgical yearnings and help us to reach out to The Holy One. Interestingly, though most of our prayers are couched in the plural – pertaining to the entire community, baked into our formal liturgy are opportunities for individual, personal prayer.

The first place to look for such private prayer opportunities is the very opening pages of most prayer books that begin with the morning service. Originally intend to be recited at home; these prayers were transferred to the synagogue to serve as private mediations which would help prepare the worshipper for the public worship to come. In October 2010 I wrote:

“Those who are familiar with the Siddur (prayer book) will note that even before the formal service begins there is a collection of personal prayers and reflections that can be offered. ‘Elohai Neshama – My God the soul that You implanted with in me…,’ the passionate prayer dating back to Talmudic Times (Berachot 60b) is a perfect example of such a prayer. The text reflects the notion that at night-timeis that part of God that is inside each and every one of us. Elohai Neshama gives us the opportunity to express gratitude to God and to remind ourselves of our connectedness to our Creator and to each other.”

Here is a stirring setting called Elokai Neshama by one of the greatest and best know Hazzanim of all times; Moshe Koussevitzky. Taken form an album entitled; Moshe Koussevitzky Earliest Recordings; a compilation of material originally recorded in Europe, this record was copyright 1967 by the Collectors Guild. The recording is part of a magnificent collection of Jewish Music Located at Florida Atlantic University, the Judaica Sound Archives.
Here is a link to the text in Hebrew and English.

Following the recitation of the Amidah, (see below), is a liturgical compilation known as Tachanun. Tachanun is a section of personal petitions and supplications that are inserted in the weekday morning and afternoon service. So intense is the recitation of Tachanun that we rest our heads on our forearms and say part of the Tachanun in a hunched-over submissive posture. Based on biblical president, our sages felt that since we are at a time in the service when we are most focused on our relationship with the Almighty, we should expand this intense period of concentrated prayer and introspection by adding Tachanun.

On Monday and Thursday mornings we extend the Tachanun with additional supplications. However, Tachanun is not recited on happy occasions such as Purim or Hanukah in the presence of a bride or groom or when a Brit Milah  (Bris) is about to take place. Remarkably, this set of supplications is also omitted in the presence of a mourner and on Tisha B’Av, our day to grieve for the fallen Jerusalem Temple, so as to not too greatly increase our sadness.

Personal prayers by such great liturgical sages as Sa’adia Gaon and Rav Amram as well as some poignant psalms are found in this plaintive collection. These prayers ask God to help us personally through whatever difficult times we may be currently experiencing.

We ask that God “assuage our fears, establish the works of our hands, heal our wounds and save us from our tormentors.” Even in our deepest time of despair we appreciate the ability to place ourselves in God’s hands.

Some of the other themes related to in Tachanun include, the value of a good friend, guidance in avoiding evil or temptation. Sephardi congregations often include the confessional as part of Tachanun.
All versions of this supplication include the prayer Shomer Yisrael – guardian of Israel which, as Rabbi Reuven Hammer notes, reflects the trepidation of the medieval European Jewish community. Tachanun concludes with the declaration, “alone we are helpless”; we rely on God for compassion and guidance. Here is a recording, again from the FAU archives, of Hazzan Israel Rand singing a popular setting of Shomer Israel.

Above I made reference to the Amidah the a formal series of 7-19 blessings that form the core of every synagogue service. Certainly an entire Blog post could be devoted to this quintessential prayer. We begin the Amidah with a most extraordinary process. It is customary to take three steps backwards and then three steps forward while reciting the phrase, “Adonai S’fatai Tiftach…Lord open my lips so that my mouth can find the proper words to address You.”(Ps 51:17) According to the great liturgical scholar Ismar Elbogin, this phrase was introduced by the sage Rabbi Yochannan in the 3rd century. The purpose of this ritual is to symbolically separate ourselves from the rest of the congregation enter into a private audience with the Holy One. In essence, at least three times a day we have the opportunity to have individual “face time” with our Creator.

This private conversation with God is guided by the age-old Blessings of the Amidah – some of which date back to the time of the Ancient Jerusalem Temple. Built into the process of reciting the Amidah, however, are specific opportunities for individualized prayer. Chief among these personal prayers is that contained within the eighth Blessing, the Prayer for healing. Our Siddur, contains a formula into which the names of those for whom we pray can be inserted. Moreover, the version found in both the Sim Shalom Siddur for Shabbat and Festivals and the Weekday Sim Shalom contain an extra line asking the Holy One also support the caregivers of those who we mentioned.

Similarly, the sixteenth blessing, “Shomeia Tephila – The One who listens to prayer”, is also a traditional point at which to insert a personal petition. Rabbi Hammer cites the Talmud (Avodah Zara 8a) for the origin of this custom. Not only can any heart-felt supplication be inserted at this point but prayers for comfort on the national days of sorrow are customarily included here as well. Thus prayers for Tisha B’Av, mourning the destruction of the Holy Jerusalem Temple and Yom Ha Shoah, the commemoration of the Holocaust are added to the Shomeia Tephila prayer. Interestingly, Hineni, the personal plea of the prayer leader on the High Holidays, ends with the same concluding phrase.

Just as the opening phrase of the Amidah is based on a psalm as instituted by Rabbi Yochanan, the concluding passage also contains a verse from a Psalm (19:15) “may the words of my mouth and the meditations of my heart …” Preceding this is a moving personal mediation –“Elohai N’tzor L’shoni Me’ra – May God keep my tongue from evil.” This prayer is cited in the Talmud by the sage Mar Ben Ravia.

Although several permutations of this concluding meditation have existed in different liturgical traditions, offering some personal thoughts is an essential part of the process of the individual recitation of the Amida. At the conclusion of the Elohai N’tzor, with the words “Oseh Shalom,” we take three steps backwards and bow to the left and the right symbolizing the conclusion of our formal chat with God. Perhaps our sages felt that since we began by asking Divine guidance for our words, we should conclude our conversation with The Holy One with the hope that our language continues in this sanctified vein.
Here is a link to the text in Hebrew and English.

The provision of opportunities for individual prayer in the context of public worship reminds us of the nature of our relationship with God. We are connected to The Holy One on a personal level at all times, even when experiencing the power of communal prayer. It is clear that God is at the same time within us and part of the community at large; the more that we seek God, the closer we feel to God and the deeper our connection to our community through the Almighty.

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Tephila Tips #10 The Book of Psalms

The Book of Psalms

One of the most exquisite collections of poetry ever written can be found right in our own Hebrew Bible; it’s called the book of Psalms.

Links:

Tracks:

These are short audio tidbits of information that help you to understand the meaning and structure of our prayers and services.  If you have a question, suggestion or comment; feel free to add a comment on this post or to send me an e-mail to hazzan@e-hazzan.com. You can also call me at 754-273-8613

E-Hazzan, Music for Mourning

I suppose it is due to my sadness at the resent  loss of my wonderful father-in-law of blessed memory that my musical attention is tuned to the music and liturgy associated with mourning. Ever since the destruction of the Holy Temple in 956 BCE and again in 70AD much of our collective consciousness has been focused on lamenting the loss Temple and the subsequent exile of the Jewish people. Dating back to the biblical books of Psalms and Aicha (Lamentations), we have examples of an outpouring of grief channeled through sacred text and liturgical music. Here, for example, is a setting of Psalm 137 Al Naharot Bavel, “By the Rivers of Babylon” by the great 16th century composer, Salamone Rossi (1570-1630). One can hear the deep lamentation of the Israelite exiles as they respond to their Babylonian tormentors. The connection of the notion of collective mourning for the destruction of ancient Jerusalem and the idea of an individual lamenting the loss of a loved one is natural in Judaism. In fact, the traditional expression of condolence to a mourner is; “ Hamokom y’nachem etchem b’toch sha’ar avelei tzion v’urshalim … May you be comforted together with all of those who mourn for Zion and Jerusalem.” Our Jewish culture is designed so that no mourner need feel entirely alone but is always in a position to be surrounded by an empathetic, caring community. Thus, the liturgy and music used for Yizkor, the public memorial service held in synagogue during major festivals is practically the same as that which is employed at a funeral.

The first prayer that comes to mind when considering the liturgy of mourning is the Kaddish. Constructed around an ancient Aramaic translation of a passage from the Biblical book of Daniel, “Y’hei Shmei Rabbah m’vorach l’olam ol’olmei al maya….May His Great Name be blessed for ever and ever in to the world to come,” the Kaddish is one of the best know elements of our liturgy. Ismar Elbogen the great scholar of Jewish Liturgy notes that the great sages of the early rabbinic period attached deep meaning to this phrase which was invoked at the mention of the Holy Name. Soon this expression began to be used in the context of the formal expression of faith in God’s eternal Kingdom customarily uttered at the end of a rabbinic discourse. Although at first, these expressions were improvised by each orator, the formula eventually became the standardized in the form of the Kaddish.

Elbogen notes that the earliest reference to the Kaddish appearing as part of the synagogue liturgy can be found in a Palestinian source dating back to the seventh century. Phrases like, “L‘eila minkol birchata … beyond all blessings, hymns and praises …,” make the Kaddish an ideal vehicle for expressing the greatness and holiness of God.  Similarly, the passage found in the full Kaddish beginning with, “Tikabel Tzlothon … accept our supplications and petitions …” is most meaningful in the context of the service. In the synagogue, the Kaddish serves to separate various sections of the service. Thus we find a Half or “Hatzi” Kaddish as well as a full Kaddish. There is also a Kaddish D’Rabbanan or “scholar’s Kaddish” which is recited after a selection from rabbinic literature. The mourner’s Kaddish, which is also included at various points during the service, differs from the full Kaddish in that it omits the section asking that our prayers and supplications be acceptable.

The connection of the Kaddish, which proclaims the majesty and grandeur of God, to mourning, is difficult to see on the surface. Certainly the references to the world to come and the establishment of God’s eternal Kingdom are relevant. Some say the idea of connecting the Kaddish to mourning came from an ancient practice of engaging a scholar to offer a rabbinic discourse as part of a standard memorial service. As noted above, the essence of the Kaddish would be intoned by the teacher at the end of his talk.

Elbogen also points out that the sages attributed tremendous power to the Kaddish, especially in that it invites the congregation to praise God by reciting the core of the Kaddish, “Y’hei Shmei Rabbah m’vorach l’olam ol’olmei al maya….May His Great Name be blessed for ever”  and to respond to the mourner’s affirmation of faith  with “Amen.” Moreover, some sages espoused a belief in the mystical power of the Kaddish to influence the progress of the soul form earth to heaven – hence the origin of the requirement for a mourner to say Kaddish for a 3 – 12 month period. Whether or not the Kaddish has magical powers, the act of attending a formal service and saying the Kaddish with the support of the community has tremendous impact on a bereaved individual. Kaddish provides a compelling opportunity to connect with the members of the community and encourage them to praise God in memory of their loved one while at the same time allowing the mourner to feel the presence of and reflect on the memory of the one being missed. At a time when one is at a loss for words and in danger of losing connection with the Creator, the natural Jewish repose is to say Kaddish. For an in-depth look at the history and development of the Kaddish; read this excellent section from Jewish Liturgy, A comprehensive History by Ismar Elbogen 1913; translated by R. Scheindlin 1993. Although it is often simply read aloud, there is a tradition to chant the Kaddish in a simple minor form. Here is the traditional chant of the mourners Kaddish.

El Male Rachaim, “Exhaulted Compassionate God” is also a prayer found both in the Synagogue and in the context of a funeral service. According to R. Reuven Hammer in his commentary on the Sim Shalom Prayer Book for Weekdays entitled Or Hadsah, this hymn began as an elegy for the victims of the medieval crusades. El Male Rachaim asks that the loved one be protected under the wings of the “Shechina,” God’s Holy presence. Our text concludes with the wish found inscribed on many memorial stones, “may the loved one’s soul be bound up in the bonds of eternal life.” Special versions of the El Maleh can be found for martyrs, for victims of the Holocaust and for fallen defenders of the State of Israel. Here is a heartfelt, moving setting of the El Male Rachaim by the Great Hazzan Gershon Sirota (1877-1943.)

Ever since Biblical times, we have turned to the book of Psalms for words of comfort and inspiration. Many selections from the 150 entries contained in this collection of exquisite biblical poetry are appropriate for a memorial services. Perhaps the most widely used is Psalm 93, “The Lord is my Sheppard, I shall not want…” Its popularity no doubt stems from the passage. “Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I shall fear no evil….” There are many settings of this inspirational Psalm; here is an intriguing example of Psalm 23 entitled, Mizmor L’David” from a Collectors Guild compilation of the work of the exemplary Hazzan Joseph Shlisky on a recording entitled On the Sabbath: Uv ‘Yom Ha Shabbbos. In juxtaposition to the traditional setting of Shlisky, here is a choral setting of an English translation of  Psalm 93 by the American Jewish composer, Jacob Druckman (1928-1996), preformed by New York Cantorial Choir & Samuel Adler.  The recording is part of the Milken Archive of Jewish Music. The usage of traditional Jewish musical forms in this modern setting is one of the many reasons it is so compelling. Psalm 121, “Esa Einai El Heharim … I shall lift up my eyes to the mountains, from where shall my comfort come? … from the Lord creator of Heaven and earth” Is also an oft cited source of material of consolation and comfort. Themes like, “the sun shall not smite me by day smite me by  day nor the moon by night,” as well as “the gaurdian of Israel neither slumbers no sleeps,” make this a perfect psalm for a memorial sevice and a compelling text for musical settings.  Although the settings of this song range from folk to classical, the most compelling  version of Esa Einai I have heard is by a Hazzan who some would argue is the greatest of all times, Moshe Koussevitzky (1899-1966).This can be found on his wonderful recording entitled The Art of the Cantor Moshe Koussevitzky 

Kol omar K’ra v’omar, Ma ekra? … A voice urges me to cry out and I respond what shall I cry out?” is a prophetic passage often cited at a Jewish funeral service. Fortunately, Judaism provides us with the means to approach that which is beyond our grasp. Beginning with phrases like, “Baruch dayen emet … blessed is the Righteous Judge” and Hamokom y’nachem etchem as noted above and continuing with liturgy such as selections from Psalms, the El Mole Rachamim and the Kaddish, our heritage provides a means to express that which can not be expressed.  With profound brilliance and compassion, our tradition gives us the opportunity and tools to give voice to that which resides deep in our souls. Hazzan Michael Krasman